Issue 2, Fall 2006

Resources for the Development of Emergency Preparedness Plans in School Foodservice

Local school foodservice operations are often at the center of emergency response activities, working with local, state, and federal agencies to bring relief to those in need. Today, in the wake of the September 11 and Hurricane Katrina tragedies, it's more important than ever that school foodservice operators create and implement proactive and comprehensive emergency preparedness policies and procedures. Such steps will help school nutrition professionals work with community leaders to develop effective response plans and strategies designed to protect the health and safety of its residents.

Emergency preparedness encompasses a wide range of potential incidents, including natural disasters, intentional acts of violence, food recalls, and food defense (the prevention of the intentional contamination of food, also known as "food security"). Prompt and effective response in the face of such emergencies will require a thorough plan. Without the hindsight benefits of experience in each scenario, how can school nutrition professionals ensure they have covered all the possible bases? The following resource list was developed to assist school nutrition professionals locate materials that address a variety of potential emergencies. These can be used in the development of policies and procedures unique to an individual district or school.


EMERGENCY READINESS RESOURCE MATERIALS

Federal Resources

Federal Emergency Management Administration
http://www.fema.gov/

Food and Nutrition Information Center: Disaster and Food Safety
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/etext/000080.html

Gateway to Government Food Safety Information: Disaster Assistance
http://www.foodsafety.gov/%7Efsg/fsgdisas.html

National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. (2006). Emergency response plan: Food emergency template. [Available online: http://www2.nasda.org/NR/rdonlyres/2EC4F1B6-9732-4187-8A1D-7024C6818CBE/858/NASDAFoodPlanTemplate020906.pdf.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Food Service Management Institute. (2003). Emergency readiness plan: A guide for the school foodservice operation. [Available online: http://www.nfsmi.org/Information/e-readiness.html.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service. (2005). Restaurants and grocers reopening after hurricanes and flooding. [Available online: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fsdisas4.html.]

U.S. Department of Education: Emergency Planning
http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/index.html

U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Emergencies & Disasters
http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/theme_home2.jsp

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Disasters and emergencies: Hurricanes. [Available online: http://www.hhs.gov/emergency/hurricane.html.]

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2006). Ready. [Available online: http://www.ready.gov/business/st1-empwellbeing.html.]

U.S. Food Safety Inspection Service. (2004). Fact sheet: Keeping food safe during an emergency. [Available online: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/keeping_food_safe_during_an_emergency/.]

U.S. Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Practical information on crisis planning: A guide for schools and communities. Washington, DC: Author.

Journal and Newsletter Articles

Gryder , S.D. (2006). The long road back to normal. School Foodservice & Nutrition, 60, 18-25.

Jackson, R. (2006). Personal and organizational preparedness. Health Care Food & Nutrition Focus, 23(1), 1-8.

Kwortnik, R.J. (2005). Preparing for disaster. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 47-51.

McLaren, P. (2006). When it rains, it pours. School Foodservice & Nutrition, 60, 26-34.

Kwortnik, R.J. (2005). Safeguarding hospitality service when the unexpected happens. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(1), 13-39.

Puckett, R.P. (2006). Educating foodservice employees on disaster preparedness. Market Link, 25(1), 1-3.

Stein, K. (2006). Will you be ready to help when disaster hits? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 190-194.

Stein, K. (2006). When disaster hits: Tales from the frontlines. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106, 346, 348-350.

Websites

American Red Cross
http://www.redcross.org/

American Red Cross: Disaster Preparedness for Seniors by Seniors
http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/0,1082,0_9_,00.html

Emergency Preparedness Service
http://www.emprep.com/

Escambia Educational Recovery Team (EERT)
http://www.escambia.k12.fl.us/eert/

Fairfax County Public Schools Emergency Preparedness and Support
http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/emergencyplan/

LifeKit
http://www.lifekit.com/

Montgomery County Public Schools: Emergency Preparedness
http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/info/emergency/preparedness/index.cfm


FOOD RECALL RESOURCES GUIDANCE MATERIALS

Federal Resources

First Gov for Consumers
http://www.consumer.gov/food.htm

General Accounting Office. (2004). Food safety: USDA and FDA need to better ensure prompt and complete recalls of potentially unsafe food. [Available online: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0551.pdf.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, National Food Service Management Institute. (2002). Responding to a food recall. [Available online: http://www.nfsmi.org/Information/recallmanual.pdf.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service: FSIS Recalls
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fsis_Recalls/

U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Recalls, Market Withdrawals and Safety Alerts
http://www.fda.gov/opacom/7alerts.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service: Areas of responsibility for food safety and food recalls
http://www.recalls.gov/food.html

Journal Articles

Golan, E., Krissoff, B., Kuchler, F., Nelson, K., & Price, G. (2004). Traceability in the U.S. food supply: Economic theory and industry studies. [Available online: http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer830/.]

O’Neal, J.A. (1999). Food safety recalls: There’s a right way. Defense Counsel Journal, 66(3), 424-427.

Shang, W., & Hooker, N.H. (2005). Improving recall crisis management: Should retailer information be disclosed? Journal of Public Affairs, 5, 329-341.


FOOD DEFENSE RESOURCE GUIDANCE MATERIALS

Federal Resources

Executive Office of the President, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. (2004). The national plan for research and development in support of critical infrastructure protection. [Available online: http://www.dhs.gov/interweb/assetlibrary/ST_2004_NCIP_RD_PlanFINALApr05.pdf.]

Gateway to Government Food Safety Information: Countering Bioterrorism and Other Threats to the Food Supply
http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/bioterr.html

General Accounting Office. (2003). Food processing security. [Available online: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03342.pdf.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service. (2004). A biosecurity checklist for school foodservice programs. [Available online: http://healthymeals.nal.usda.gov/hsmrs/biosecurity.pdf .]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service: Food Security and Emergency Preparedness
http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Food_Defense_&_Emergency_Response/index.asp

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. (2005). Industry self- assessment checklist for food security. [Available online: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Self_Assessment_Checklist_Food_Security.pdf.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Response Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-188, § 42, 116 Stat. 595. (2003). [Available online: http://www.fda.gov/oc/bioterrorism/bioact.html.]

U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Risk assessment for food terrorism and other food safety concerns. [Available online: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/rabtact.html.]

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2002). Guidance for protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks. Atlanta, GA: Author.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2003). Food producers, processors, and transporters: Food security preventive measures guidance. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2001). Food safety and security: Operational risk management systems approach. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security
http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/

U.S. Department of Homeland Security: Ready Business
http://www.ready.gov/business/index.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Food Defense and Terrorism
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fsterr.html

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2005). Strategic Partnership Program Agroterrorism (SPAA) Initiative: Executive summary. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Retail food stores and food service establishments: Food security preventive measures guidance. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools, U.S. Department of Education. (2003). Practical information on crisis planning: A guide for schools and communities. Washington, DC: Author.

World Health Organization. (2002). Terrorist threats to food: Guidance for establishing and strengthening prevention and response systems. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Journal Articles and Books

Bruemmer, B. (2003). Food biosecurity. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103, 687-691.

Perry, R.W., & Mankin, L.D. (2005). Preparing for the unthinkable: Managers, terrorism and the HRM function. Public Personnel Management, 34, 175-193.

Rasco, B.A., & Bledsoe, G.E. (2005). Bioterrorism and food safety. Washington, DC: CRC Press.

Schneider, H. (2005). Protecting public health in the age of bioterrorism surveillance: Is the price right? Journal of Environmental Health, 68(5), 9-13.

Stein, B.D., Tanielian, T.L., Vaiana, M.E., Rhodes, H.J., & Burnam, M.A. (2003). The role of schools in meeting community needs during bioterrorism. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 1(4), 273-281.

Zink, D.L. (2004). Agroterrorism: Issues of reality. Journal of Food Science, 69(2), 47-54.

Websites

AIB International: The AIB guide to food security
http://www.foodsecurityresourcecenter.com/products.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Bioterrorism
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/

National Food Service Management Institute: Biosecurity Checklist for School Foodservice Programs
http://foodbiosecurity.nfsmi.org/Resources.php


BIOGRAPHY

Story is a registered dietitian, certified chef, and has a master’s degree in nutrition education. Currently, she is a PhD candidate in food and lodging management at the Child Nutrition Leadership Academy at Iowa State University.

Journal of Child Nutrition & Management | School Nutrition Association